Download e-book for iPad: Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and by John Burnham

By John Burnham

ISBN-10: 0226081176

ISBN-13: 9780226081175

Expertise calls for uniformity from humans who stumble upon it. humans encountering expertise, in spite of the fact that, fluctuate from each other. Thinkers within the early 20th century, staring at the grim effects of interactions among people and machines—death by means of vehicles or dismemberment by means of manufacturing facility equipment, for example—developed the assumption of coincidence proneness: the tendency of a specific individual to have extra injuries than most folks. In tracing this idea from its delivery to its disappearance on the finish of the 20 th century, coincidence services deals a special historical past of know-how targeted no longer on techniques yet on their unintentional consequences.Here, John C. Burnham exhibits that because the computer period improved, the actual and financial effect of injuries coevolved with the increase of the assurance and developments in twentieth-century psychology. After global warfare I, psychologists decided that a few individuals are extra twist of fate services than others. This designation signaled a shift in social process towards minimizing injuries by way of diverting specific humans clear of harmful environments. by way of the Sixties and Nineteen Seventies, although, the belief of twist of fate proneness progressively declined, and engineers built new applied sciences to guard everyone, thereby introducing a hidden, yet radical, egalitarianism.            mendacity on the intersection of the historical past of expertise, the historical past of medication and psychology, and environmental historical past, coincidence services is an formidable highbrow research of the beginning, development, and decline of an concept that might curiosity an individual who needs to appreciate how Western societies have grappled with the human bills of contemporary existence. (20091217)

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Extra info for Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and Misfits of the Machine Age

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Unfallneigung therefore was a phenomenon that belonged in psychology, not medicine—and, as will be noted below, Marbe’s British counterparts made a similar transition at the same time, 1925–1926. German Origins Moreover, from the beginning, Marbe made clear that his intended audience was not just theoretical psychologists. He saw that his ideas should have concrete application to insurance, industry, and transportation. An accident prone chauffeur, Marbe contended, needed to find another kind of occupation.

Could, for example, distraction from a task be measured in the ways in which noises slowed a person’s work down or caused a person to make errors? 51 It was not a big step to trying to match workers to their tasks. The studies of error in motor tasks therefore showed a bias toward fi nding appropriate workers. Frederic Lyman Wells, in using typewriting as an experimental task to study psychomotor errors in 1916, remarked that this was an extremely “industrial” task. 53 Originally, particularly in the nineteenth century, physiologists had investigated how work energy of the human body could suffer from fatigue.

Then he subjected the youngsters to psychological tests for such attributes as attention and reaction time, tests that were used then for such employment as streetcar driver. Again, no basis for classification existed. The accident-free children had reaction times slower than the accident prone. 40 Marbe’s theory had, therefore, become known among Germanspeaking experts—to the point that they now could reject it. In 1929, for example, the Göttingen psychologist, Narziss Ach, well known for his experimental work on reaction times, wrote about preventing automobile accidents.

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Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and Misfits of the Machine Age by John Burnham

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